Hip and Knee Disorder
Patellofemoral pain syndrome is pain in the front of the knee. It frequently occurs in teenagers and athletes. It sometimes is caused by wearing down, roughening, or softening of the cartilage under the kneecap. It may be caused by overuse, injury, excess weight, a kneecap that is not properly aligned (patellar tracking disorder), or changes under the kneecap.
It is characterized by painful inflammation of the bursa located just superficial to the greater trochanter of the femur. Activities involving running and those involving the possibility of falls or physical contact, as well as lateral hip surgery and certain preexisting conditions, are potentially associated with trochanteric bursitis. Patients typically complain of lateral hip pain, though the hip joint itself is not involved. The pain may radiate down the lateral aspect of the thigh.
How can the physical therapist help?
Physical therapy offers several interventions to accelerate the healing process. The most effective interventions are articular mobilizations, active release techniques, education about the condition, wearing a splint, and exercises. When performing mobilization techniques, the Physical therapy can execute passive movements of the lower limb and use specific mobilizations to stretch the joint capsule and allow for a better quality of movement. The therapist can also prescribe different exercises meant to increase lower extremity movement, stretch the capsule, and increase the strength of the thigh. Other methods can be employed, such as the use of TENS or interferential current for pain management and neuro-proprioceptive taping to improve movement quality and reduce pain. In many cases, Physical therapy treatments are also combined with Acupuncture to help stretch muscle fibers, capsule and relieve pain. Combining these two methods increases the patient’s chances of having a speedy recovery.
A meniscus tear is a common knee injury. The meniscus is a rubbery, C-shaped disc that cushions your knee. Each knee has two menisci at the outer edge of the knee and one at the inner edge. The menisci keep your knee steady by balancing your weight across the knee. It is usually caused by twisting or turning quickly, often with the foot planted while the knee is bent. Meniscus tears can occur when you lift something heavy or play sports. As you get older, your meniscus gets worn out, which in return predisposes it tear more easily.
An anterior cruciate ligament, or ACL, injury is a tear in one of the knee ligaments that joins the upper leg bone with the lower leg bone .The ACL keeps the knee stable. Injuries range from mild, such as a small tear, to severe, such as when the ligament tears completely or when the ligament and part of the bone separate from the rest of the bone. Without treatment, the injured ACL is less able to control knee movement, and the bones are more likely to rub against each other
The knee joint is made up of three bones, the femur (thigh bone), the tibia (shin bone), and the patella (knee cap). Each bone end is covered by a layer of cartilage which cushions and protects the bone while allowing their frictionless movement. Cartilage, which contains no nerve endings nor blood supply, receives nutrients from the fluid within the joint. It can be damaged by wear and tear or trauma resulting in diseases such as arthritis. The result is pain, swelling, weakness, and difficulties with daily activities. For severe arthritis, knee replacement surgery might be indicated. Total knee replacement surgery can relieve pain, correct leg deformity and help patients to resume their normal activities.
The hip joint is a ball (femoral head) and socket (acetabulum) joint. Their surfaces are covered by smooth cartilage lubricated by a thin layer of joint fluid. In cases of severe arthritis, pain my occur at the joint which may affect daily activity. The advancement of material technology and surgical technique made joint replacement surgery safe and effective. The result is pain relief and improvement of joint function.